The five pillars of Islam are mandatory on all muslims. The Five Pillars of Islam consist of: Shahada, Salat, Zakat, saum, and Hajj. If a Muslim does not do these five acts then he not considered muslim. Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying the Zakat, making the pilgrimage to makkah, and fasting in Ramadan.
Shahada is the declaration of faith and is the fundamental belief of islam. There is no God but Allah (SWT) and Prophet Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. The belief shows awareness of God as one. These few words are very powerful and sometimes we don't realize that.
Salat is the daily prayer. It is performed 5 times a day, at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and night. Salat can be done anywhere where it is clean, but it must be facing the direction of the kabbah in makkah. Before Salah, Muslims must ritually clean themselves, which we call waddu. After washing up, we stand for prayer on a clean ground or what we call a prayer mat. The purpose of praying is to remember Allah and it is beneficial to yourself in getting good deeds. It is one of the acts to express yourself as a muslim, and is one of the easiest ways to enter jannah.
Zakat is giving charity or giving money to the poor and needy. Zakat is a proportion of a person's disposable income and is paid every year and has a special significance. It is a way of showing kindness to the poor, assisting those who are in depth or who are poor and needy. No one should refuse to give Zakat or feel ashamed receiving it because it is a gift from Allah (SWT).
Saum is fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan. Muslims must not eat or drink during the hours of daylight. Saum is a religious duty and a joyful act that helps develop self discipline and is a way of identifying the needs of those who are poor.
Muslims are expected to go on Hajj at least once in their lifetime. If they are in good health and can afford it. Hajj makes muslims feel the importance of life here on earth, the after life and shows the real meaning of life. During Hajj, Muslims do acts of worship, and ask forgiveness. The kabbah plays a very big part in Hajj, it is the center. Muslims go around the Kabbah 7 times. Ismaiel and his father,Abraham, built the Kaba about four thousand years ago before Prophet Muhammed (P.B.U.H) was born.
These are the five pillars of Islam. Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Fasting, and Hajj.